the Early Mousterian from Ehringsdorf


This is a small (2 cm long) bifacial artifact from the Ehringsdorf quarries, a so called “Keilchen” (a miniature handaxe), characteristic for the archaeological findings from the Lower Travertine at this site. It is not a broken tool, but a delicate tiny instrument with sophisticated covering retouches on one side and partial retouches focused to the tip on the other. Microlithic artifacts are not rare at the site.

The travertine quarries at Ehringsdorf roughly 2.4 km from Weimar, Germany have been producing large amounts of faunal remains and human artifacts for almost two centuries.  The standard stratigraphy includes Travertine horizons, loess, periglacial horizons and fluviatile gravels and was first formulated by Soergel 1926. The first description of a standard profile was valid for more than 50 years and revisited during the past decades.

The Lower Travertine is separated from the Upper Travertines by the more porous, loess-rich “Pariser” horizon (up to 2 m thick), the upper part of which consists of a palaeosol. The Upper Travertines (up to 10 m thick) are less coherent than the Lower Travertine and are subdivided into four layers (A–D) by three “Pseudopariser” horizons (I–III). The vegetation of the Travertines are predominantly that of mixed oak woodland, with the occurrence of Vitis (common grape vine) indicating temperatures warmer than those of the Ilm Valley today.

The site was formed in the vicinity of a spring rich in minerals. The minerals precipitated, thus forming subsequent travertine layers. The layers creation must have been  very quick, because the rocks are not only rich in imprints of bones, but also plant  macro remains such as leaves, or fossilized tree trunks preserved to the height of over  a meter. For this reason, the site is an extremely valuable source of information for paleoclimatic-ecological reconstructions, as well as for very detailed archaeological and micro-stratigraphic analyses. However, due to the rocks considerable hardness, it is difficult to develop a suitable mining method which would allow for capturing and separating all the concentration layers. So far, the excavations were mainly carried out with a controlled use of dynamite.

Behm-Blancke dated the whole travertine profile as Eemian (Behm-Blancke, 1960). In  later works the upper travertine layer was dated to Amersfoort and Brörup Interstadials (Behm-Blancke, 1967). This view has been subsequently questioned. Patterns of faunal turnover within the sequence, the presence of indicator species such as A. maastrichtiensis and the degree of morphological evolution in other taxa, such as Arvicola and Mammuthus, combine to suggest that only a single, pre-Eemian interglacial is represented at the site. Furthermore, no lithological or paleontological evidence exists for the intervening period of severe cold that would represent the OIS 6 glaciation. More recent U-series dating by Mallik et al. (2000) places the Lower Travertine at 236±13 k.a. BP and the Upper Travertine at 198±10 k.a. BP., seemingly supporting the above view.

In particular, the large amounts of floral and faunal remains point to fully interglacial conditions for the Lower Travertines. More specifically, studies of the floral remains have placed the human occupation layers in the climatic optimum of this interglacial, the mixed-oak forest phase.

Human fossils were first discovered in 1908 in the Lower Travertine.  In 1914, the mandibles of an adult human and, in 1916, the remains of a child were recovered some meters apart. One Calvarium was found in September 1925. More systematic fieldwork was conducted in the 1950s by Behm-Blancke who concentrated on the investigation of the different occupation floors connected with the human remains. He confirmed earlier claims for the presence of structures such as fireplaces. On the basis of the long term investigations it seems that the find horizon must have covered more than 1500 m2. The human fossils (Ehringsdorf A to I) derive from a minimum of six individuals.

In the case of the eleven-year-old child Weimar-Ehringsdorf G, we have indications that a more or less complete body was embedded in the travertine. While in this case the presence of a grave cannot be excluded, there is no conclusive evidence for an intentional burial.

Dating the Ehringsdorf material to an interglacial before the Eemian also correlates well with the paleoanthropological results. The Ehringsdorf skulls show only weak development of neanderthaloid features, which suggests a relationship to the “Ante Neanderthals”. If we accept that the Ehringsdorf hominins lived during OIS 7, and that the Steinheim hominin lived during OIS 9, it is possible to interpret the finds as reflecting successive stages in the neandertalization of an indigenous European hominin population.

Excavations by Behm-Blancke were the most extensive archaeological studies so far at the site. The richest in artifacts was the so-called “central area” of the Kämpf quarry. Behm-Blancke basically kept the overall stratigraphy described by Soergel. Within the lower travertine layer Behm-Blancke distinguished several (up to 10) levels of “hearths”, the so-called “Brand-Schichten” where flint artifacts were found. Archaeological artifacts were also collected during subsequent geological research;  some were found incidentally. In the years 1993- 2003, during the mining operations a new archaeological level was discovered within the upper travertine layer.

The inventory from the lover Travertine includes several thousand of stone artifacts collected continuously for over 200 years. Artefacts are mostly made of flint and many of them are heavily frost cracked. The complete ensemble is characterized mainly by flakes (Schäfer 2007). Discoid cores are rare (about 12%), Levallois technique is virtually absent and many flakes were produced from opportunistic cores.

The retouched tools are dominated by various types of side scrapers, unifacial convergent tools, limaces (“Doppel-Dickspitzen”), and bifacially worked artifacts. Certain bifacial tools, due to their regular shape, were defined in the literature as leaf points and “Keilchen” (miniature handaxes) as the example shown here. Overall the retouched ensemble can well be compared with several Pre-Eemian collections from France with a similar concept, while the sophistication of the flake production, although mostly not from formal cores,  is similar to that of other Eemian sites near Weimar  (Rabutz; Taubach; Weimar, Belvederer Allee) and to the lower strata of the Sesselfelsgrotte (M and O strata). Anyhow these characteristics should in my view not be used to re-date the site to the Eemian, as proposed by some researchers.

Recently Małgorzata Kot nicely demonstrated how the transformation of unifacial tools into bifacial artifacts was performed at Ehringsdorf, critically questioning the Débitagefaçonnage dichtomy :

“Ehringsdorf tools show traces of multiple, subsequent resharpening. The knapper started from unifacial retouch on one or both edges of a flake’s dorsal side. In the course of further resharpening, the ventral side of the flake required certain adjustments. After several rejuvenation phases tools show all the features of bifacially shaped tools in a type of leafpoints or knives. From a technological point of view, the question arises if such a reduction sequence can be called bifacial, unifacial, or should be defined in a different way”.

Kot M. (2017) Bifacial and unifacial technology: A real difference or a problem of typo–technological approach? The example of the Ehringsdorf assemblage, Quaternary International 428, 66-78

The original publication by Behm-Blancke can be found here:

“Keilchen” from this publication:

Explore artifacts from the Lower Travertine in color:

Dating the Travertine:


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Should we call it Taubachian?

These are some unifacial microlithic artifacts ( length about 3 cm) from the last Interglacial Travertine at Burgtonna, about 20 km north west from Weimar; Germany. The artifact on the left has been made from a Levallois flake, the other tool was probably made from an opportunistic core. Both are made of flint.

The last interglacial, the Eemian (ca. 125 k.a. ago), with a duration of between 11-12 k.a. is characterized by a typical succession of plant communities, making it possible to correlate archaeological sites with good pollen records to specific parts of the Eemian. Therefore, Eemian Interglacial deposits hold the potential to function as high resolution archives for the study of Neanderthal behavior.

In central Europe, pollen profiles indicates the broad-leaved forest dominated by oak and elm, with participation of lime, maple and ash in the first half of the Interglacial and hornbeam at the optimum phase. During the second half of warm period, the gradual cooling and increasing humidity of climate brought about a development of dark-coniferous communities. Newer research shows, that Neanderthals were well adapted to such environments.

Recently, a GIS Maximum Likelihood Classification from 22 paleoclimate zones in Europe was created in order to assess where Neanderthal sites were located in relation to climate variables. The modeled climate zones examined in relation to last interglacial site locations demonstrates Neanderthals had a preference for Warm Temperate and Mesic climates and did not commonly select site locations near climate margins to exploit an array of food resources. Warm Temperate and Mesic climate zones may have been more seasonally stable for plant and animal populations, and in turn experienced less fluctuation in resource availability.

MIS5 sites from Central Europe in general have yielded microlithic assemblages and Neanderthal remains. Some of these assemblages have been named Taubachian (Valoch 1984). These assemblages are often related to hot water springs, or lake shores. Eemian life in central Europe may have been concentrated around such small lakes and springs  where people waited for incoming animals. Ambush hunting was probably common. Scavenging might have been easy, especially for rhino. The archaeological finds at most of these sites are embedded in a fine-grained sedimentary matrix or travertine.

The preservation of the finds tends to be excellent; plant remains are often preserved and bone surfaces do not generally show signs of significant post depositional alteration and still reveal the finest cut- and scrape-marks.  The animal remains are especially those of one or two great herbivores (bovines, horses). Among the fauna, there are also remains of large mammals as elephants and rhinoceros. In some assemblages, these remains are numerous (for example Gánovce in Slovakia or Taubach in Germany).

Possible pray that could be targeted, were Aurochs and red deer, well adapted to woodlands. Moreover, forest elephant and forest rhino kept large areas free of dense forests and facilitated grazing by other species such as horse and giant deer. It is of highly interesting that humans often exploited elephant and rhino at several sites. It is not always clear whether these animals were hunted, trapped or just scavenged. At Taubach, the age profile of forest rhino and bear together with abundant cut-marks argue for hunting of these dangerous animals. The minimum count of individuals at Taubach was 76 rhinos and 52 bears.

At the Lehringen site in Lower Saxony (Germany), an elephant skeleton was buried at a lake-side together with a 2,4 m long wooden spear and 27 stone unretouched Levallois flakes. Whether humans actually hunted the animal or just killed it when already trapped in the swamp, remains open to discussion. It was certainly butchered, as is equally attested for an elephant skeleton found at Gröbern, again at a lake-side, and again along with 27 Levallois artefacts.

The nearby Neumark-Nord site, dated to the first half of the Eemian interglacial, yielded several in-situ butchery zones.  Here hominins exploited a wide range of herbivores in a 26 ha lake landscape.

The combination of large animals and small flakes is characteristic for most of the central European MIS5e sites. The reason for a microlithic Mousterian has hotly debated: a microlithic tradition ( as K. Valoch and others argued) ?, Raw-material constraints? , deliberate choice of Neanderthals to produce flexible butchering implements? The flakes could have been hand hold or used as hafted tools.

Levallois-Point from Lenderscheid

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The Early Gravettien at Pataud rock shelter

The first pictures of this post show a Flechette (4 cm long) and a classic middle sized (7,5 cm long) Gravette point from the Pataud rock shelter.

The Gravettian is a great cultural tradition of the Early Upper Palaeolithic, present throughout Europe starting from 33 000 cal BP. Its duration and its vast geographic distribution make it a complex entity to define, both in terms of the material culture and the dynamics that contributed to its preservation for almost 10 000 years. During this period, several successive climatic changes had an impact on the human and animal communities which are still difficult to apprehend. Despite unifying features (Gravette points, feminine statuettes), a strong regionalization is perceptible.

The most important multilayered site in S/W-France remains the L’Abri Pataud, or the Pataud Shelter in English, a prehistoric site found in the middle of the village Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in the Dordogne, Aquitaine, southwestern France (Picture from the wonderful Don`s Map).

The abri is named after Marcel Pataud, a local peasant, who made the first findings at the end of the 19th century. Emile Rivière (1835–1922) described the site in 1899 as  „La Croze de Tayac“. 1901 and 1906 he made some soundings followed by Louis Capitan (1854–1929). In 1909  Denis Peyrony (1869–1954), whose report about his small scale excavations was published in 1949, called the site finally as „Abri Pataud“. The artifacts shown here, are from one of these early excavations and seem to  come from the oldest Gravettian levels. Complete examples of these early projectile points are rare from this site. Such middle large and even larger Gravettes are characteristic of the Gravettian in the larger Aquitaine, maily before the Noailles-phase. Famous examples are the three strata at La Gravette, the Abri Le Poisson, Le Facteur,  Trou de la Chèvre, Roc de Combe (Lot), Laussel, and Abri Pages at Ruth, Roc de Combe Capelle and the couche J at La Ferrassie.

The French government classified the site as an historical monument by decree on 25 June 1930, and additional shelters located nearby under the cliff further protected as of May 9, 1958. The site became the property of the museum of natural history in 1957 at the initiative of Hallam L. Movius, who had directed excavations since 1953. Movius continued to direct investigations between 1958 and 1964.

The results of the excavations were compiled by Harvey M. Bricker. Continuing work will help elucidate the evolution of stone tool use at the shelters themselves, and their relationship to other sites in the region. Since 2005, a scheduled archaeological operation is adding to our knowledge of the site and to the collection. It concerns one of the shelter’s last human occupations during the final phase of the Gravettian (22 k.a. BP). The operation, headed by R. Nespoulet and L. Chiotti (Prehistory department – MNHN) involves a team of fifteen researchers and students for yearly one-month digs, who supply the materials needed for the multi-disciplinary studies underway.

The site includes human remains, stone tools, and early cultural artifacts made during the Upper Paleolithic, between approximately 41 and 17 k.a.  ago. The excavators described several macro-units, but from the field notes we know, that the stratigraphy was much finer. According to the publications from the Movius team the stratigraphic sequence comprises distinct stratigraphic units, separated by sterile layers:  Eboulis de surface.  Niveau 1, Solutréen inférieur. Eboulis 1-2. Niveau 2, Proto-Magdalénien ( Perigordian VII or “Laugerian”; a Late Gravettian). Eboulis 2-3. Niveau 3, Périgordien VI (a Late Gravettian). Eboulis 3-4. Niveau 4: Noaillien (Figure 3 shows a classic Noailles Burin from the site). Niveau 5, Périgordien IV (Early Gravettian) . Eboulis 5-6. Niveau 6: Aurignacien évolué. Eboulis 6-7. Niveau 7, Aurignacien b évolué. Eboulis 7-8. Niveau 8: Aurignacien a évolué. Eboulis 8-9, niveau 9, éboulis 9-10, niveau 10. Eboulis 10-11. Niveau 11: Aurignacien b ancien. Eboulis 11-12. Niveau 12: Aurignacien a ancien. Eboulis 12-13. Niveau 13: Aurignacien b initial. Eboulis 13-14. Niveau 14: Aurignacien a initial.

The results suggest that occupation at the Abri Pataud began between 41-40 k.a. cal BP, this  just prior to the start of the occupation of Level 14. This initial occupation may have taken place during a colder climatic regime. The only interstadial event of significance is the GIS9 event at c. 40 k.a. cal BP . This concurs with the faunal evidence in Level 14, which is dominated by reindeer (98.7% of the faunal elements).

Overall, the early Aurignacian at the site dates between 41-35 k.a. cal, the evolved Aurignacian started at 38 k.a. cal BP followed by a hiatus of between 1800 and 3300 years before the  Gravettian started at ca. 33 BP and ended with the Protomagdalenian at 22 BP.

The Abri Pataud, distinguished for its meticulous excavation  and its exhaustive publication, attests to the variety of probable weapon tips used within the Gravettian technocomplex in the Périgord.

The Early Gravettian Level 5 , with 5,640 retouched tools, has virtually no backed bladelets or shouldered/tanged points, but it does have huge numbers of Gravette points (15.4 %) along with a substantial quantity of microgravettes (9.6 %). There are also a about 150  fléchettes, a type of probable projectile point that is marginally, abruptly retouched into a bi-pointed leaf shape, sometimes bordering on microlithic size (3–6 cm long, with an average of 4.6 cm).

The so-called Noaillan level (Level 4 ) has virtually no backed bladelets, fléchettes, microgravettes, shouldered or tanged points, and only a very few Gravette points . Presumably hunting either was not a major activity during these occupations, or it was done with entirely different weaponry.

In contrast, so-called Perigordian VI (Level 3) has a huge number of microgravettes (181 = 13.8 %), together with many Gravette points (85 = 6.5 %) and small quantities of various backed bladelet types (24 = 1.8 percent).

Finally, and again in contrast, the so-called “Proto-Magdalenian”  Level 2, dated to 22 k.a.  has huge numbers of backed bladelets (388 = 33.6 %), but no Gravette points or microgravettes. Pataud would seem to show that a variety of weapon tips were used at different times within the Gravettian range, sometimes macrolithic and sometimes microlithic. Why the various choices were made by Gravettian hunters is unknown.

In addition Level 2 revealed more than 400 human remains representing a minimum of 6 adults and children. The new excavations (2005-2011), the analysis of archives and a new study of the Movius collections highlight original funeral behaviors with primary deposits presumably followed by secondary interventions. It is suggested that men used the abri

A series of artifacts, which were qualified as «extra-ordinary» is considered to be associated with human remains and therefore as funerary deposits. Hundreds of painted fragments from the flaking of the rock shelter wall, twenty-six body ornaments pieces, several fragments of herbivores scapulae with decor painted in red ocher and an ocher deer skull comparable to the group of three skulls found during Movius excavations. A large bovid scapula with red ocher punctuated decor, discovered in 1963, has been completed by six fragments from sorting of the Movius collection fauna.

Abri Pataud / Les Eyzies during the Gravettian: Three Rare Artifacts

Reindeer phalanges from the Gravettian at Abri Pataud / Dordogne

Gravettian Jet Pendant at Abri Pataud (Les Eyzies; Dordogne)

Suggested Readings:

BRICKER H. M. 1973 – The Perigordian IV and Related Cultures in France, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Ph. D. Dissertation, 1849 p.

BRICKER H. M., DAVID N. 1984 – Excavation of the abri Pataud, les Eyzies (Dordogne), The Perigordian VI (Level 3) assemblage, Bulletin of the American School of Prehistoric Research, Peabody Museum, Harvard University, n° 34, 109 p.

BRICKER H. M. (sous la direction de) 1995 – Le Paléolithique supérieur de l’abri Pataud, Dordogne, les fouilles de H..L. Movius Jr, Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Documents d’Archéologie Française, Paris, n° 50, 328 p.

BROOKS A. S. 1979 – The significance of variability in Paleolithic assemblages: An Aurignacian example from southwestern France, thesis of Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachussetts, 1057 p.

HIGHAM,T., et al., Precision dating of the Palaeolithic: A new radiocarbon chronology for the Abri Pataud (France), a key Aurignacian sequence, Journal of Human Evolution (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.06.005

MOVIUS H. L. Jr. 1977 – Excavation of the abri Pataud , Les Eyzies (Dordogne): Stratigraphy, American School of Prehistoric Research, Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Bulletin n° 31, 167 p.

NESPOULET R. 1996 – Le Périgordien VI de l’abri Pataud, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne. Etude technologique et typologique de l’industrie lithique de la couche 3, thèse de doctorat, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 260 p.

NESPOULET R. 1999 – Remontage d’une microgravette dans une séquence de débitage laminaire du Gravettien final de l’abri Pataud (Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne). Niveau 3 : Périgordien VI, Préhistoire du Sud-Ouest, n° 6, pp. 57-77.

NESPOULET R. 2000 – Le Gravettien final de l’abri Pataud, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne. Nouvelles données technologiques et typologiques sur l’industrie lithique provenant du niveau 3, L’Anthropologie, vol. 104, n° 1, 2000, pp. 63-120.

POTTIER C. 2005 – Le Gravettien moyen de l’abri Pataud (Dordogne, France) : le niveau 4 et l’éboulis 3/4. Etude technologique et typologique de l’industrie lithique, Thèse de doctorat, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, 393 p.

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Everything is broken – Who made the African MSA ?

The artifacts shown in this post come from the North African MSA and are undated. They may be 300 – 30 k.a. old. There are only a few stratified early MSA sites in the Maghreb, that give some insights about the technological evolution during MIS 9-6 and the hominins who were responsible for it.

The late stage of the ESA in the Maghreb is characterized by the assemblage of Cap Chatelier near Casablanca showing the production of predetermined flakes and cordiform thin and small bifaces, flake tools  and a very few cleavers. It is older than isotopic stage 9 after new OSL dates obtained at top of Cap Chatelier section and date about 350 k.a. old.

The Early MSA in  North African MSA began at least by MIS 8 (250-300 k.a. BP) but more probable at the end of MIS 9. It lasted until the end of MIS 3 (30 k.a.) and in some areas until MIS 2 (30-15 k.a.).  The archaeological record is  known from a small number of coastal and hinterland cave sites, mostly located in Morocco.

Only a handful of these dated sites extend into the early MSA. Currently, the oldest chronometric dating estimates come from Jebel Irhoud in Morocco (315 k.a.) and the rock-shelter of Benzú which is located near the city of Ceuta in North Africa (250 k.a.).Both sites are of eminent importance for the understanding of North African Archaeology.

At Benzú the Levallois technique the use of centripetal-multipolar cores is well attested, together with archeological proof of hunting, collecting and exploitation of marine resources. Retouched pieces represent scrapers, notches, denticulates and convergent artifacts. Possible relationships and contacts between MSA / Mousterian societies on both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar were and are discussed, but remain completely hypothetical.

At Jebel Irhoud  the oldest lithics are already dominated by Levallois technology with a high proportion of delicate retouched tools, especially convergent forms. Human remains, recently described in detail document early stages of the H. sapiens clade with several key features of modern morphology. These findings indicate that the evolution  of H. sapiens was not restricted to East and South Africa, but  involved also other areas of the African continent. Morocco was not a an evolutionary cul-de-sac!

The MSA at Ifri n’Ammar , located 470 m above sea level in the Rif Oriental of Morocco, starts at OIS 6 (171  k.a.; lower  MSA occupation) and appears similar to older assemblages and comes to an end at 145 k.a, followed by by an MSA with tanged artifacts (“Aterian”)  dated between 130 and 83 k.a. BP.

One of the most inadequate practice in Paleoanthropological research is the hastily attribution of technocomplexes to specific hominins. This insight is not new, but has been substantiated during the last 15 years of research and new discoveries. While it seems probable that the early MSA in Morocco was made by archaic members of the H. sapiens clade, the early Mousterian in Europe was made by late H. heidelbergensis or early Neanderthals.

While the MSA at  Omo Kibish (Ethiopia) was made anatomically modern humans – that were dated at 190 k.a., we do not really know who was responsible for  earlier manifestations of the MSA in East and South Africa.

In this context, the discovery of  Homo naledi has broken old paradigms. Homo naledi from the Rising Star cave system  in South Africa shares many morphological traits with early hominin species including teeth, such as large molars, and femur structure similar to the Homo erectus, Homo habilis and Australopithecus. The fossil deposition of this hominin  is currently dated by ESR, OSL and uranium-thorium dating methods, between 335 and 236 k.a.Homo naledi provides strong evidence of the coexistence of hominin species in Africa. Who knows what else might be out there?

Everything is broken

Broken lines, broken strings,
Broken threads, broken springs,
Broken idols, broken heads,
People sleeping in broken beds
Ain’t no use jiving
Ain’t no use joking
Everything is broken
Broken bottles, broken plates,
Broken switches, broken gates,
Broken dishes, broken parts,
Streets are filled with broken hearts
Broken words never meant to be spoken,
Everything is broken
Seem like every time you stop and turn around
Something else just hit the ground
Broken cutters, broken saws,
Broken buckles, broken laws,
Broken bodies, broken bones,
Broken voices on broken phones
Take a deep breath, feel like you’re chokin’,
Everything is broken
Every time you leave and go off someplace
Things fall to pieces in my face
Broken hands on broken ploughs,
Broken treaties, broken vows,
Broken pipes, broken tools,
People bending broken rules
Hound dog howling, bull frog croaking,
Everything is broken
Songwriter: Bob Dylan
Songtext v© Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

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Allonne revisited

Allonne is situated in the Oise, Picardy region , in the north of France at 3 km from Beauvais, the department capital. Allonne is 64 km North from Paris. The brickyards of Allonne once played an important role in the reconstruction of the Early and Middle Paleolithic of Northern France.

The top of the Older Loess (older than MIS5) under warm interglacial conditions, formed the argile rouge, or where redeposited the limon rouge fendille, an important marker of the last interglacial in Loess stratigraphies of the Seine Valley and Northern France in general.

At the old brickyard of Allonne characteristic “Micoquian” bifaces (Figure 3) were found within the limon rouge fendille (MIS5 or late MIS6) with some cordiformes, subcordiformes, twisted bifaces, and unifacial convergent tools as the one shown in this post (Figure 1&2).

Such discoveries ceased in the 1950s, with the closing of the Allonne brickyards, which unfortunately could not be re-studied with up to date archaeological and stratigraphical methods.

The tools of Allonne have a characteristic patina: patine blanc-bleutée. Most artifacts were produced by a hard hammer technique, but some bifaces, especially the Micoquian ones,show traces of a skilled soft hammer production. The Levallois technique is virtually absent. The artifact bearing stratum had a thickness of 40 cm maximum. Bordes and Fitte be assumed that the lithic industry was in situ and was homogeneous.

The Rehabilitation of the Micoquian (sensu Bordes) in Northern France

Before Combe Grenal: The early scientific work of F. Bordes and the Allonne Brickyards

 Similar artifacts from the classic publication (Figure 4): Bordes François et Fitte Paul, « Contributions à l’étude des limons et de leurs industries primitives. La briqueterie d’Allonne (Oise) », Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, tome 46, n°1-2, 1949, p. 52-62.

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A Swedish Battle Axe


This is a typical Swedish battle axes of the Middle Neolithic B, also called boat axes because of their shape. The axe, shown here is a type B battle axe, an early  version of the type A Corded Ware battle Axe, only with shafthole socket and butt knob. It is especially common in Eastern Central Sweden.

At around 2800 BC, the Funnel Beaker culture mostly disappears from the archaeological record in Southern and Western Sweden and more or less novel types of artefacts appear. There are two alternative names for this new set of objects: Battle Axe culture or Boat Axe culture. The full name  is actually the ‘Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe culture’, as the material culture found in southern Norway is very similar to the Swedish – initially at least.  The Battle Axe culture is a regional version of the Corded Ware culture complex.

In the third millennium BC a similar form of burial tradition and material culture appears in large areas of Northern and Eastern Europe.. The characteristic single graves contain crouched individuals seemingly buried according to a strict set of rules regarding orientation, position and gifts. There are new types of battle axes and new types of pottery – cord-decorated beakers.

Ever since this culture was publicised by Sophus Müller (1899), almost every aspect of it has been the subject of intense debate. Explanations have ranged from involving large-scale or small-scale migrations, or diffusion of ideas, ideologies and/or religion into the local population. Others have tried to find a middle road, explaining the change as resulting from a combination of both processes. A centre of origin for the Corded Ware culture, whether in terms of people or ideas, has been traced to Jutland, Germany and the steppes of Russia respectively. Recently genetic data point indeed to a migration process from the East.

As mentioned above, the Corded Ware culture was mainly known and defined through the burials, where individuals were placed in crouched positions. Orientation of the graves, as well as the position of the deceased and where he or she was facing, seem to have been strictly regulated and also dependent upon gender. The burial gifts are likewise very rigidly prescribed and placed in relation to the body. The groundstone battle axes are often seen as evidence for a patriarchal and individualistic social order, in contrast to the collective megalithic tombs of the preceding Funnel Beaker culture.

It should be noted, however, that the frequency of battle axes varies considerably across the Corded Ware region, being far more common in some parts of Germany and especially Scandinavia than in Poland, the Czech Republic or Switzerland. The common denominator, which has also given the name to the phenomenon, is the cord decorated beaker.The shape and to a lesser degree the decorative patterns on these beakers also vary, from slim, long-necked Protruding Foot beakers of Holland and parts of Germany to the far more globular, wide-mouthed beakers of Sweden and Finland.

Apart from the beakers and battle axes, the burials may include work axes of flint or groundstone, flint blade knives, bone awls, rings made from bone or amber, bone pins, tooth-shaped bone pendants and occasionally small copper ornaments. Less common, or more regionally specific, are hammer stones, arrowheads, wristguards, antler weapons, grindstones and quern stones. The typical grave is often described as being oriented east- west, with men placed on their right side and women on their left, both facing south. As with all such generalisations, there are plenty of exceptions. A problem is that bones are often not preserved enough for an osteological sex determination. In fact, often not enough remains of the body to even ascertain the position in which the dead was placed. Sex is therefore often determined solely based on the burial gifts, with the risk of a circular line of reasoning. The assumption that battle axes denote male burials seems to hold up on the occasions when actual skeletal remains are analysed, however, the other types of objects are generally not as easy to ascribe to only one gender. In fact, several of the other tools and artefacts seem to appear in both ‘male’ and ‘female’ burials, though possibly with different frequency or position. This is also something that is subject to regional as well as chronological variation.

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The Middle European Micoquian of the Franconian Jura

In the Late Jurassic, Southern Germany was part of the north-western Tethyan shelf. In outcrop, the marine epicontinental sediments are forming the Swabian and the Franconian Alb (upland) and their forelands. The Upper Jurassic of Southern Germany is a classical area of paleontological and archaeological research since the 19th century.

This is a bifacial scraper made of flint (8 cm long) from an early 20th century collection of KMG- findings from the Franconian Jura. Located between two rivers, the Danube in the south and the Main in the north, its peaks reach elevations of up to 600 meters and it has an area of some 7053.8 km2. Many famous Middle Paleolithic sites  such as the Sesselfelsgrotte, the Klausennische and  the Abri I Schulerloch in the Altmühl Valley, the Hohle Stein at Schambach and the Steinerner Rosenkranz at Mörnsheim near Eichstaedt are situated in this area.

Within this context, the G stratigraphic complex (“G-Komplex”) of Sesselfelsgrotte  yielded one of the longest cultural sequences of late Middle Paleolithic bifacial industries during MIS3. It remains debatable, if pre-MIS3 KMG- inventories were present in S-Germany and if bifacial assemblages were the expression of a distinct socio-cultural behaviour of Middle / East European Neanderthals or not.

Anyhow, looking further west and north in Germany, there is no proof that the KMG-strata of Königsaue, Bockstein, Buhlen and Balve are older than MIS3, while Pouch-“Terassenpfeiler”,Salzgitter-Lebenstedt and Lichtenberg are securely dated to this timeframe.


Bifacial Scraper from Montguillain / Goincourt (Oise)

The Prądnik (KMG) complex in Central Germany revisited


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Point a face plane from Laugerie-Haute



This is a point a face plane Type A after P. Smith (1966) found in Protosolutrean layers at the large rock-shelter of Laugerie-Haute, on the right bank of the Vezere in Dordogne. The Solutrean techno-complex emerges is geographically confined to Southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula, and occurring within c. 22–19 ka cal BP, that roughly matches the course of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Heinrich Event 2 – a discharge of ice-meltwater into the North Atlantic, with cooling effects on European temperature.

Points a face plane are a group of very diversified artifacts. Some appeared not only during the protosolutrean but were also present during the later stages of the techno-complex.

Points a face plane: 
Type A: Nearly or fully symmetrical, pointed on both ends, or on only one end, which can be occasionally rounded. Upper face covered with flat retouches. Lower face plain or retouched over limited part of its surface. 
Type B: The most typical pointes at Laugerie : teardrop shaped or dejete usually to the right. Much of the upper face retouched along the left side of the median ridge. Occasionally the upper face is entierly retouched. Bulb at the base may have been removed  by retouches. 
Type C: “Chatelperron- like“, slightly curved and made on a long blade. The retouches  are concentrated on one side of the median spine of the upper face. Bulb at the base may have been removed  by retouches. 
Type D : Broad and heavy made on a flake with flat retouche covering the upper face and parts of the lower face. “Mousterian-like” and found throughout the Solutrean and not only in the earlier phases. Type-site: Badegoule
Type E: essentially only pointed blades. Single or double tipped. Flat terouche concentrated around the tip. 

Techno-typologically the Solutrean  represents a clear disruption from the previous pan-European techno-complexes and seems to contest  an evolution towards more  specialized hunting weapons that represent the adaptation of human groups to the rigorous climaticd context of the LGM. At Laugerie-Haute, which is seen as “the central pillar of the reconstitution of the French Solutrean” (Smith 1966) all the fauna associated with the Solutrean characterizes a generally cold and dry climate.

According to Smith (1966) the Solutrean is divisible into the Protosolutrean, Lower Solutrean, Middle Solutrean, Upper Solutrean and Final Solutrean. The Lower Solutrean features unifacial points, while the Middle Solutrean is characterized by laurel leaf points (Fig 2: from Solutre) . The Upper Solutrean sees shouldered points (Fig 3: from the upper Solutrean at Fourneau du Diable) and willow leaf points, some potentially too fine to have been used for practical purposes.

The Protosolutrean in known from very few sites in Southwest France, Laugerie Haute, Abri Casserole, and recently the site of Marseillon has been added to the list  albeit sharing more characteristics of the Protosolutrean as it is known in Iberia (Vale Comprido, Peña Capón, Calvaria 2, Portela 2) than with the French Solutrean. The lithic technology of Marseillon has been used to support evolution of the the Solutrean from the Gravettian, in riposte to the traditional view of the Solutrean representing a full break from the preceding phase. According to this hypothesis of evolution between the industries, the transition occurs across the entire Solutrean region, with a great deal of interaction between France and Iberia and with much long-distance exchange occurring. In this view the Protosolutrean is seen as a transitional industry between the Gravettian and the Solutrean. The early phase of this techno-complex seems to be characterized by the “Vale Comprido” point.

Laugerie-Haute,was discovered by E. Lartet and H. Christy in 1862 and recorded by them as a palaeolithic site. Since its discovery it  has since been explored in part from time to time by archaeologists, and was “under excavation” by H. Hauser when WW I broke out in 1914. It was acquired by the State on Hauser’s conviction of espionage. In 1921, Denis Peyrony began the systematic excavation of the shelter. It had never previously been examined below the Solutrean and Magdalenian levels. The investigations were carried on at intervals over a period of years, the excavation being completed in 1935. The last four years were devoted to the east end of the shelter, which had not been excavated before.

According to D. and E. Peyrony (19389 the east side (Laugerie Est) was occupied continuously from the late Gravettian to the Solutrean until the Late Magdalenian. They observed the following stratigraphy: Level B B’ F H H’ H” I I” I”” J K (“Perigordien” VI and VII/Protomagdalenian, Lower Solutrean, Middle Solutrean, Upper Solutrean, Magdalenian I, Magdalenian II, Magdalenian III, Magdalenian V).

In contrast the west side, Laugerie Haute Ouest lacks any Magdalenian levels but has a well-developed Solutrean sequence instead. The stratigraphy has described by the Peyronies is as follows: Level B D G H’ H” H”’ (Gravettian,  “Aurignacian V”, Protosolutrean, Lower Solutrean, Middle Solutrean, Upper Solutrean).

F. Bordes and D Smith re excavated the site during the late 50ies / early 60ies with much more sophisticated excavation techniques. At the east of the site, for example, Peyrony’s 13 excavation complexes (layers A to K) correspond to 42 complexes from Bordes’ excavation.

Further analysis of the collections, which derive from the excavations of Bordes and Smith at the both sides of the shelter (east and west) shows that the both stratigraphics are different. They don’t date of the same time and there are gaps in the sedimentation.

The reevaluation of the data showed that:

  • The Laugerie-Haute stratigraphy and consequently the Solutrean chronology are more complex than those previously known. During the Solutrean, Laugerie-Haute was inhabited by a group who did not occupy the whole rockshelter. As the others Upper Paleolithic living groups, they travelled through a limited territory of the northern Aquitaine.
  • The study of raw material shows the prevaling exploitation of the local Senonian flint, especially those of the alluvial deposits of the river Vézère. These choices depend of the flintworking techniques weakly laminar. The laurel leaves are mainly fashioned in the Senonian brown flint. Exotic flints are also represented (Bergeracois and Fumélois flint, flint from the Hettangian of the Corrèze, Cenozoïc flint from the left bank of the Dordogne). They were notably used for unifacial point manufacture. The point shown here was made from a brown Cenozoïc flint, now heavily patinated.
  • the Aurignacian V level overlies the Protomagdalenian (Perigordian 7) level and not the other way around . It is characterized by carinated and nosed elements and may represent a final Gravettian.
  • It is not easy to establish the limits between the Solutrean complexes (Lower, Middle or Upper Solutrean), nor between the east and the west of the shelter.
  • several strata appeared to be mixed and disintegrated especially the Solutrean strata at the west end. Chronological studies should concentrate at the east side, rather than at the west of the site.

Panorama of Laugerie-haute from the wonderful  “Don`s map”

Badegoule- an important Archaeological site for the Solutréen and Badegulien in S/W-France

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Levallois- Mousterian near Geulah Cave (Mt. Carmel; Israel)

These are three Tabun-B surface findings from the Mt. Carmel, found during the 1950ies near Geula(h) cave.

Geula Cave is situated on the eastern slope of Mount Carmel , 205 m above sealevel. It is 2.5 km  south oft he point where the outlet of Nahal Gibborim- Wadi Rushmiya in Arabic- flows into the Mediterranean. The site now lies in the built-up area of the Geulah quarter of Haifa. The cave, and a narrow, undisturbed ledge along the face of the rocky cliff are remnants of a former, larger cave destroyed by recent quarry operations. Excavations in the two chambers of the cave and on the ledge-called a terrace by its excavator-were carried out by E. Wreschner in four seasons, 1958-1964.

Geula Cave was especially rich in small mammal remains and characterized by very little sign of human activity and is unique among the Carmel caves with a Levallois-Mousterian in yielding not only the presence of carnivores, but also that of porcupines, with limited evidence to scavenging and hunting by either hyenas or humans.

Three layers with “Tabun-B” characteristics were discovered, identical in archaeological content throughout the excavated area; only their thickness varied in the cave and on the terrace. In layer B two stages could be distinguished and were designated accordingly. In all Layers Levallois points were the most frequent artifacts (up to 20%)

Layer A: 10 to 30 em thick, with gray dusty soil; contained Levallois- Mousterian flint implements, horn and teeth fragments; and 2,176 animal bones.

Layer B1: 25 to 40 cm thick, with brown, powdery soil; contained Levallois flint implements, bone tools, animal bones, ocher, and Hyena coprolites.

Layer B2: 40 to 90 cm thick, with blackish-brown soil embedded with charcoal fragments; contained Levallois flint implements of uniform size all larger than those found in layer B1), bone tools, and animal bones. The two B layers yielded 9412 bones, including horns and teeth; 318 bone tools; and three small human bone fragments.

Layer C  5 to 20 cm thick, with light-brown powdery soil; rested on bedrock, filling cavities and crevices. The soil was sterile. A sediment analysis of layers C-A (from bottom to top) by E. Schmid showed a change from a warm, humid climate (layer C) to a warm, dry one (layers B2 to B1), followed by a change to colder, wet conditions (layer A). An early C-14 examination of charred bones from layer B1 gave a (minimum) date of  42 ± 1,7 k.a. BP. This is also the date of some human remains, most  possibly assigned to AMH.

A porcupine from the Royal Château de Blois (French: “Château Royal de Blois”) is located in the Loir-et-Cher Département in the Loire Valley, in France, in the center of the city of Blois. The residence of several French kings, it is also the place where Joan of Arc went in 1429 to be blessed by the Archbishop of Reims before departing with her army to drive the English from Orléans. (Free License by Wikipedia).

A. Rust and D.A.E. Garrod: Different Attitudes

Dead End Street: The Levallois-Mousterian of the Carmel region

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The Middle Paleolithic of the North German Plain


Nearly the entire North German Plain lies less 100m above sea level. The lowland is drained by the north-flowing Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, and Oder rivers; nowadays a network of shipping canals and inland waterways connect the rivers from east to west. Glacial action formed the region’s landform patterns, which can be divided into three major areas of relief from west to east: the alluvial deposits of the Lower Rhineland, the flat glacial sands and gravels of Lower Saxony west of the Elbe River, and the series of morainic uplands and troughs extending eastward from Schleswig-Holstein along the Baltic Sea.

Fig 1. shows a large core from LübbowLüchowDannenberg, Lower Saxony, dated to the Saalian (MIS 6). The  Saalian, which directly follows the Holsteinian in N-Germany, is a complex stratigraphic unit. Recently the Holsteinian interglacial was correlated on the basis of radiometric dates with MIS 9,  300 k.a. old, not 400 k.a.  as formerly thought. Therefore, the Reinsdorf interglacial from the Schöningen opencast mine, where the famous spears were found is most probably 300 k.a. old (correlated with MIS 9a) or even 240 k.a.  old (correlated with MIS 7). The Saalian sensu stricto (MIS 6) lasted from 230-120 k.a. with Drenthe and Warthe ice advances, between 150 and 140 k.a.

 The Early Middle Paleolithic in the North-German Lowlands, defined by the use of the Levallois technique, comprises sites which are stratigraphically underlying the Drenthe and Warthe ice advances. In general such ensembles are now dated younger than some years ago, and therefore younger than early Middle Paleolithic ensembles in France, Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. Most ensembles are small, except Markkleeberg (near Leipzig) with thousands of artifacts found so far. Here, the Middle Paleolithic archeological horizon is underlying the Drenthe gravels, which previously gave reason to date the archeological find horizon to early MIS 8, but might now be either as young as MIS 6. The Markkleeberg assemblage combines rare bifacial tools (handaxes and bifacial scrapers) with developed Levallois products of various kinds (Levallois points, scrapers). Moreover an important laminar component with volumetric blade cores has early identified in the Markkleeberg assemblage.

Another important site from the penultimate Glacial period was discovered in 1993 at Ochtmissen, Landkreis Lüneburg.  Until 1994 large numbers of flint artefacts were excavated from a 420 m2 sand layer, ca. 1.25 m beneath the surface. The ice wedges in the upper layers date back to the latter part of the penultimate Glacial period (ca. 150-130 k.a.) . The assemblage is interpreted as an Up- per Acheulian inventory including Levallois-technique. Fifty-six evenly worked hand-axes distinguish this find material, which is a quite unusual rate of recurrence for this tool.

The skeleton of a forest elephant with a yew lance is an outstanding piece of evidence that hunting took place in the Neanderthal period. This site from the Eem-interglacial was discovered in 1948 near Lehringen, Landkreis Verden. Detailed analysis of lance fragments by Thieme and Veil (1985) demonstrated the skill and care with which the weapon had been made; it featured no less than 40 knots and all the bark had been removed from the shaft.

Hundisburg near Neuhaldensleben, northwest of Magdeburg, now dated to MIS 6 shows a similar artifactual spectrum: Handaxes are rare (2 handaxes /270 artifacts) and a sophisticated Levallois technology is present. This ensemble also compromises some bifacial scrapers and Keilmesser. Renewed excavations at Hundisburg since 2005 recovered mostly sharp edged artifacts combined with the remains of large mammals and rich microfauna, while such contextual information is not available for Markleeberg.

Other findings most probably from MIS6 are only indirectly dated. The most important sites in Northern Germany  come from the Pleisse gravels near Leipzig (Cröbern, Zehmen), Gravels near Magdeburg (Magdeburg-Rothensee, Magdeburg-Neustadt, Gerwitsch).
In 1949 K.H. Jacob-Friesen published Paleolithic material from the gravels of Hannover-Döhren, Hemmingen and Rethen.  Fig 2 shows an handaxe found in the gravels of Döhren during the 1930ies. This was followed by a second publication of a handaxe rich ensemble in  1978 by Zedelius- Sanders.  The material of the Leine valley south of Hannover increased during the last 20 years by the work of  numerous voluntary helpers and assistants. While earlier studies allocated the artifacts to Pre MIS-5 times, new considerations take into account a Post MIS-5 embedding of the artifacts. The ensembles include many bifacial tools (handaxes, bifacial scrapers, some Blattspitzen and Keilmesser) and may be related to the Central European Micoquian (KMG), well attested at Lichtenberg and Salzgitter. The last Figure (Fig. 3) shows a bifacial piece from the Lichtenberg site (early MIS3). Regarding the Middle Paleolithic of the last Glaciation of the North German plain (and the North European plain, too: for example the Zwolen site) it is interesting to note the long persistence of classic handaxes in these ensembles-very different to the MTA/ non-MTA ensembles of N-France.

Three cranial fragments were recovered from coarse-grained deposits dug up by a suction dredge from gravel pits on the Leine river flats in the vicinity of Sarstedt. Also recovered were a number of artefacts which, upon careful inspection, could be assigned to the Middle    Paleolithic with  KMG affinities. The geological pattern of the Leine Valley in this region suggests that these fragments were deposited in the lower terrace during a yet undetermined warm period—possibly Brörup or Odderade—during the Weichsel glaciation. However, attribution to the Eemian period or a Saale interstadial cannot be ruled out.

The Prądnik (KMG) complex in Central Germany revisited

Salzgitter-Lebenstedt: an important Paleolithic site in N-Germany

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