These are three Tabun-B surface findings from the Mt. Carmel, found during the 1950ies near Geula(h) cave.
Geula Cave is situated on the eastern slope of Mount Carmel , 205 m above sealevel. It is 2.5 km south oft he point where the outlet of Nahal Gibborim- Wadi Rushmiya in Arabic- flows into the Mediterranean. The site now lies in the built-up area of the Geulah quarter of Haifa. The cave, and a narrow, undisturbed ledge along the face of the rocky cliff are remnants of a former, larger cave destroyed by recent quarry operations. Excavations in the two chambers of the cave and on the ledge-called a terrace by its excavator-were carried out by E. Wreschner in four seasons, 1958-1964.
Geula Cave was especially rich in small mammal remains and characterized by very little sign of human activity and is unique among the Carmel caves with a Levallois-Mousterian in yielding not only the presence of carnivores, but also that of porcupines, with limited evidence to scavenging and hunting by either hyenas or humans.
Three layers with “Tabun-B” characteristics were discovered, identical in archaeological content throughout the excavated area; only their thickness varied in the cave and on the terrace. In layer B two stages could be distinguished and were designated accordingly. In all Layers Levallois points were the most frequent artifacts (up to 20%)
Layer A: 10 to 30 em thick, with gray dusty soil; contained Levallois- Mousterian flint implements, horn and teeth fragments; and 2,176 animal bones.
Layer B1: 25 to 40 cm thick, with brown, powdery soil; contained Levallois flint implements, bone tools, animal bones, ocher, and Hyena coprolites.
Layer B2: 40 to 90 cm thick, with blackish-brown soil embedded with charcoal fragments; contained Levallois flint implements of uniform size all larger than those found in layer B1), bone tools, and animal bones. The two B layers yielded 9412 bones, including horns and teeth; 318 bone tools; and three small human bone fragments.
Layer C 5 to 20 cm thick, with light-brown powdery soil; rested on bedrock, filling cavities and crevices. The soil was sterile. A sediment analysis of layers C-A (from bottom to top) by E. Schmid showed a change from a warm, humid climate (layer C) to a warm, dry one (layers B2 to B1), followed by a change to colder, wet conditions (layer A). An early C-14 examination of charred bones from layer B1 gave a (minimum) date of 42 ± 1,7 k.a. BP. This is also the date of some human remains, most possibly assigned to AMH.