Tools from the Middle Europe Micoquian: Grochakis

aggsbach heidenschmiede

These are two Grochakis from a Micoquian open air scatter at Möttingen near Nördlingen (Baden Würtenberg; Germany). Grochakis are a characteristic element of the Middle European Keilmessergruppen (KMG; Middle European Micoquian). They were first noted in the Prodnik ensembles near Krakow by S Krukowski. Grochakis are made of oval or circular flakes with continuous or discontinuous semi abrupt or abrupt retouches, often referred by the Polish authors as “round scrapers“ although there function remains obscure.  In Germany such artifacts were first recognized by Bosinski and are called: flat flakes (1) Type Heidenschmiede (continuous retouch) or (2) Type Balve (discontinuous retouche). Beside Balve and Heidenschmiede, in Germany such artifacts are especially known from the Neanderthal burial site, the Sesselfelsgrotte (G-Complex), from the Schullerloch Mousterian and from the Schambach Micoquian in Bavaria. In addition Grochakis have been detected in stratum 7c of the Kulna Micoquian.

Heidenschmiede Micoquian:

Pictures and article by Thilo Parg. Note that Peters suggested, that the original strata had been mixed and arranged the artifacts according the typological system of his time ( Acheulian -Mousterian-Mesolithic).

“Microliths” from the Sesselfelsgrotte (Germany)

Micoquian from Okkienik (Poland)


okienik aggsbach


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About Katzman

During my whole life I was fascinated by stone age artefacts. Not only the aesthetic qualities of these findings, but also the stories around them and the considerations arising from their discovery, are a part of my blog. Comments and contributions are allways welcome!

About me: J.L. Katzman (Pseudonym). Born in Vienna. Left Austria in 1974 and did not regret. Studied Medicine and Prehistory at a German University. Member of a Medical Department at a German University.

Copyright 2010-2017 by JLK. All Rights Reserved. You are welcome to use material in these posts so long as you cite the work.

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