A simple scraper and a borer-like biface . Two isolated findings from the Negev at Sede Boker. Were these artifacts produced by modern or archaic humans? This seems to be a strange question, because both tools are within the range of behavioral variability of the last 300000 years
The concept of behavioral modernity “, a quality supposedly unique to Homo sapiens first, proposed by European Researchers 25 years ago, and now en vogue also within the Africanists scene, is one example how scientific paradigms can be lead to a dead end.
In fact the concept of behavioral modernity seems to be the renaissance of the well known prescientific narrative of “them and us“or “civilization and barbarity”. The dichotomy between “modern” vs. “archaic” is obtrusively stressed in always every paper that is centered on the MSA or on “transitional” industries.
If we simply dismiss the deductive “behavioral modernity-paradigm” we could discuss questions that are of real importance for the paleoanthropology of the Genus Homo, without any loss of perception. One does not need to invoke a “human revolution” to account for changes during the Paleolithic, which are explicable in terms of well-understood principles of behavioral ecology. I would plead for inductive concepts, which are surely somewhat more modest, but will probably lead to better and testable hypotheses.