On the left this picture shows two Quina scrapers from the Gargano and from Venosa (Basilicata). While the Gargano has been introduced during earlier posts (http://www.aggsbach.de/2013/08/gragano-homo-heidelbergensis-was-here/) – the Basilicata also known as Lucania is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia (Puglia) to the north and east, and Calabria to the south/west. The artifacts on the right are typical Levallois-based artifacts from a surface site in the Gargano. Two of them are pretty blade based and have affinity to the late Mousterian in N-Italy immediately before the arrival of AMH.
New excavations in N and S-Italy have shown, that the evolution of the Italian Middle Paleolithic follows in large lines the evolution of this complex in S-France. At the Grotta di Fumane, an important site in northern Italy, which has been extensively explored over the last two decades a succession of Mousterian- Uluzzian-Protoaurignacian and Aurignacian (and early Aurignacin parietal paintings and an ochered shell in the late Mousterian !) was documented and extensively dated (http://www.ice-age-europe.eu/visit-us/network-members/fumane-cave.html). The 12 m thick sedimentary sequence are related to repeat and complex human occupations. The earliest assemblages record the almost exclusive use of the Levallois method (MIS 5-4) for the production of flakes with unidirectional and centripetal recurrent modalities. The first striking technological replacement occurs in BR6, up to BR3, where there is a complex of layers with the infrequent occurrence of bones, flakes and scrapers, made with a method closely resembling the Quina technique (MIS4). Further evidence of variability in lithic technology is provided by the re-appearance of the Levallois technology during MIS3, in layer A11 – although here focused more on blades than flakes – and by the Levallois/Discoid alternance throughout the transect from A10V to A5-A6 (MIS3).
Recently Levalloisian was reported from San Bernardino Cave (N-Italy) dated to the MIS8/7 boundary. Although the Levallois method was suggested to be absent in S-Italia, stratified sites with Levallois based ensembles and absolute dates have been excavated during the last two decades, contradicting the view, that the Italian South did not share the technical and cultural innovations in the rest of Europe. First traces of the Levallois system in S-Italy are dated to MIS6. The Levallois technique during the last interglacial/glacial cycle (MIS5 and later) is now well established, especially in Puglia. For example, the layer B of the Grotta Bernardini which recently was dated to a period just after 108 k.a. shows basically a Levallois mode of lithic production, as the industry of the G layer at Grotta Romanelli (MIS 4/3) and corresponding strata of the Grotta Titti.
A closer view on one of the Gargano retouched Levallois blades – a stiking convergence to the ca. 220 k.a. old Hummalian artifacts in the Syrian Desert! (http://www.aggsbach.de/2010/10/hummalien-at-el-kowm/).